Hollow-Core 3D Printing (HC3DP)

Hollow-Core 3D Printing (HC3DP) is a novel concept for material extrusion (ME) 3D printing, It overcomes shortcomings of state-of-the-art ME systems by introducing large-scale, tubular beads instead of solid ones. ME has become a popular 3D printing method for large-scale applications such as in the automotive, naval, aerospace, and architecture sectors. It allows the production […]

Nonplanar Layered Morphologies

With the advent of robotic printing, it is possible to print material along 3D paths with variable orientation and thickness. Consequently, paths can be customized to enhance aesthetic or practical attributes such as surface quality or mechanical performance. However, there is a lack of methodologies for designing robot-fabricable, non-planar print paths. This research aims to […]

Capsules of Complexity: additively manufactured connections for non-standard space frames

Advances in additive manufacturing (AM) technologies present opportunities to fabricate customized structural parts at no extra cost. 3D printing offers the missing link to effectively establish a digital chain, from design to fabrication, for non-standard space frames. This research investigates the opportunities of customizing the joints in a structure, that relate to structural form, usage […]

Architected Porosity

High-performance building elements are often complex multi-material assemblies that are difficult to manufacture and recycle. However, the novel field of foam 3D printing (F3DP) in construction allows to combine the advantages of differentiated material properties with the simplicity of monolithic building systems. This research investigates applications for innovative architectural elements that are lightweight, thermo-structural efficient, […]

Digital Materiality of Glass for Architecture

This research stream investigates the customization of industry-ready float glass and its potential for architecture. Properties of color, form, and opacity in glass could enable new functions and aesthetic effects in glass. However, contemporary construction primarily implements glass as a fully transparent, standardized construction material due to the high cost related to its customization. This […]


Additive manufacturing technology can free the designer and manufacturer from the constraints related to formwork making for castable materials. However, the removal of formwork remains a challenging task for specific geometric features such as undercuts and hollow parts. The entire formwork must be reachable, by humans or machines, to be broken, but even then, there […]

Tectonics of Concrete Printed Architecture

The context of digital fabrication with concrete allows architects to reinvestigate material, process and design to explore novel expression in architecture. 3D Concrete¬†Printing (3DCP), or layered extrusion, is an additive manufacturing method where fresh concrete is deposited in layers to fabricate a digitally generated 3D model. As a no-formwork construction approach with the advantage of […]

Volumetric Modelling

This research investigates a range of different mathematical models in computational design for the creation and modification of three-dimensional geometry. With additive manufacturing, especially binder-jet 3D printing, we have the most radical fabrication process at hand, one that is beyond tectonics. The logic at work in many CAD packages is that of assembling linear or […]

Digital Composites

Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) can have a significant impact on the built environment. In addition to the extraordinary weight-to-strength ratio, the main objectives of using CFRP in architecture are its plasticity, functionality, sustainability and aesthetics. While in theory, CFRP can take any shape, currently the design is limited by the fabrication constraints of mould making. […]

Digital Metal: 3D Printing+ Casting Metal

Digital Metal research focuses on using 3D Printing for Casting Metal. For the first time 3D printing sand is used for production of complex metal structural parts in architecture; While the advances in 3D printing metal are significant, this technology has its shortcomings for application in AEC industry. For example, small build volumes, long print […]

Free Formwork

Despite the recent developments in digital fabrication technologies, physical architectural forms are struggling to keep up with the limitless design freedom possible in digital environments. Beyond aesthetics, geometric complexity can have a significant impact on the built environment. Material efficiency, topology optimization, functional integration and a smart assembly logic can all benefit geometric features which […]